September 2012



The National Climate Change Policy provides a framework for addressing the issues that Pakistan faces or will face in future due to the changing climate. In October 2008 Mr. Salman Faruqui, the then Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, established a Task Force on Climate Change under the chairmanship of Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad, Advisor Science and Technology. The report of that Task Force has been used as a building block for the preparation of this policy. Furthermore, extensive consultations with provincial and federal ministries, institutions and civil society provided valuable inputs to the policy document. In view of Pakistan’s high vulnerability to the adverse impacts of climate change, in particular extreme events, adaptation effort is the focus of this policy document. The vulnerabilities of various sectors to climate change have been highlighted and appropriate adaptation measures spelled out. These cover policy measures to address issues in various sectors such as water, agriculture, forestry, coastal areas, biodiversity and other vulnerable ecosystems. Notwithstanding the fact that Pakistan’s contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is very small, its role as a responsible member of the global community in combating climate change has been highlighted by giving due importance to mitigation efforts in sectors such as energy, forestry, agriculture and livestock. Furthermore, appropriate measures relating to disaster preparedness, capacity building, institutional strengthening; technology transfer; introduction of the climate change issue in higher education curricula; ensuring environmental compliance through Initial Environmental Examinations (IEE) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) in the development process; addressing the issue of deforestation and illegal trade in timber; promoting Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM); and raising Pakistan’s stance regarding climate change at various international forums, have also been incorporated as important components of the policy. The policy thus provides a comprehensive framework for the development of Action Plans for national efforts on adaptation and mitigation. This policy document is a ‘living’ document and will be reviewed and updated regularly to address emerging concepts and issues in the ever-evolving science of climate change.


Table of Contents

1. Goal 1 2. Policy Objectives 1 3. Pakistan’s Vulnerability to Climate Change Threats 2 4. Climate Change Adaptation 3 4.1. Water Resources 3 4.2. Agriculture and Livestock 6 4.3. Human Health 8 4.4. Forestry 9 4.5. Biodiversity 12 4.6. Other Vulnerable Ecosystems 13 4.6.1. Mountain Areas 13 4.6.2. Rangeland and Pastures 14 4.6.3. Arid and Hyper Arid Areas 15 4.6.4. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems 16 4.6.5. Wetlands 17 4.7. Disaster Preparedness 18 4.8 Socioeconomic Measures 19 4.8.1. Poverty 19 4.8.2. Gender 21 5. Climate Change Mitigation 22 5.1. Energy 22 5.2. Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation 24 5.3. Transport 24 5.4. Town Planning 26 5.5. Industries 27 5.6. Agriculture and Livestock 27 5.7. Carbon Sequestration and Forestry 29 6. Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening 30 7. Awareness Raising 33 8. International and Regional Cooperation 33 9. Finance 35 10. Technology Transfer 36 11. Policy Implementation Mechanism 37

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