Please allocate 5% of Budget for Water sanitation and hygiene, in Pakistan

Now when we are designing our budget for 2015-2016 let us all suggest our government to invest in future of the national living standards by allocating a major chunk of budget (5%) for Water sanitation and Hygiene.
This one intervention will improve our multiple development indicators.

We have frequent episodes of disease like
Diarrhea, Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis and several other, Caused by
poor quality drinking water and sanitation results in agony and death .Disease of dear and near ones causing Loss of working hours, spending on medical treatment and hence a deficient domestic spending in an already poor home.
Mother, supervising elder sister / brothers spending major time and
energy in collecting water from distant parts of the community, are
unable to contribute their role in family upbringing and development,
which is the right of younger, growing family members. This
deprivation results in a poor family development and family fabric in
addition to exposing female folk to dangers of harassment and
Frequent disease episodes and low spending capability results in
children not attending schools, mal nourished, and rowdy youngsters,
eventually growing into unhealthy members of the society and burden on it.
Poor families are already food deficient and are infested with
Helminthes in their digestive track that results in having strong
competitor of already scarce food, making the poor more
If we look at all indicators of under development at a glance like
Poverty, education, health and a forthcoming youth force capable of
contributing to a developed nation infrastructure we conclude that the common link/ cause of our under development in south Asia is our inattention to water , sanitation and Hygiene education.

Man-made problem: Who’s behind city’s artificial water crisis, SHC wants to kno

Man-made problem: Who’s behind city’s artificial water crisis, SHC wants to know

Published: May 22, 2015


Petitioner accuses water board workers of holding water, forcing people to buy from tankers. PHOTO COURTESY: FARHAN ANWAR

Petitioner accuses water board workers of holding water, forcing people to buy from tankers. PHOTO COURTESY: FARHAN ANWAR

KARACHI: As the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) launched its city-wide protests against water shortage in the city, the high court has also asked officials to explain who is behind this ‘artificial’ crisis.

On Friday, the Sindh High Court (SHC) directed the provincial minister for local bodies, the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) chairperson, the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation administrator, the commissioner and the provincial chiefs of the police and Rangers to submit reports to explain what action they have taken against officers involved in creating an artificial water crisis and running illegal water hydrants in Karachi.

A division bench, comprising justices Syed Hasan Azhar Rizvi and Hasan Feroz, directed the provincial law officer and the law officers of the relevant departments to file these reports by May 28. The two judges sought these reports after the respondents neither appeared in court nor submitted their replies since February.

The petition was filed by civil rights campaigner, Rana Faizul Hasan, who alleged that the local government officers, KWSB and KMC were behind the persistent shortage of water in the metropolis so that the mafia can steal water and then sell it to the citizens at exorbitant rates. He argued that the citizens were experiencing an acute shortage of water as the mafia was not only actively stealing the essential commodity but also selling it to the industrialists.

Hasan alleged that the ‘valve men’ of the KWSB do not release water in their localities and force the citizens to buy water from the tanker mafia.

Domestic water sold to industries

Apart from this, the petitioner claimed that around six million gallons from the domestic quota is stolen in the city’s West zone every day and then sold to the industries to earn profits of up to Rs7.2 million, Hasan claimed. Similarly, around eight million gallons are stolen from the domestic quota in Site every month and then sold to the industries for Rs200 million.

Unauthorised hydrants

The petitioner also pointed out that legal water hydrants run by the KWSB are supposed to conduct their operations for four hours every day but the contractors, who are awarded contracts by the KWSB to operate these hydrants, are operating them beyond the fixed hours. The legal hydrants at Nipa Chowrangi, Garden and Sakhi Hasan are involved in excessive operations where more than one suction pump is being used to extract water, he added.

Under the official policy adopted in 2010 regarding water hydrants, KWSB is responsible to legally award tenders to private contractors to run its water hydrants. However, there are 117 illegal water hydrants operating across the metropolis details of which may be called from the board’s managing director, claimed Hasan.

He argued that easy access to basic amenities, such as water, is the fundamental right of every citizen as guaranteed under Articles 4, 8, 9 and 25 of the Constitution but the authorities are failing to protect such rights.

During Friday’s proceedings, the judges observed that notices were issued to the respondents on February 25 to file their comments but they failed to do so. The bench once again asked them to file their responses by May 28. The provincial law officer and legal officers of the relevant departments were asked to turn up with such replies at the next hearing.

Published in The Express Tribune, May 23rd, 2015. 




Salim Ahmed

Friday, May 22, 2015 – Lahore—Punjab Chief Minister Muhammad Shahbaz Sharif presided over a high level meeting here Thursday which reviewed the progress on Saaf Pani Project.

Speaking on the occasion, the Chief Minister said that a big project of supply of potable water to rural areas has been started in the province under which water filtration plants will be set up. He said that the project will be launched from four districts of South Punjab and this programme will gradually be expanded to the whole province.

He said that an amount of Rs. 50 billion will spent on Saaf Pani Project during the next three years. The Chief Minister directed that the progoramme of revival of non-functional water schemes should also be started with Saaf Pani Project. He said this project is of vital importance and should be implemented in a professional manner.

Shahbaz Sharif directed that the survey of all Tehsils of Punjab be completed till June 30 and a comprehensive mechanismbe devised for checking of water filtration plants. He said that work should be carried out speedily and transparently on this public welfare project while a high standard should also be maintained. He said that the target of provision of potable water in all Tehsils of the province till 2017 will be achieved.

Chief Executive Officer of Saaf Pani Company gave a briefing on the pace of the project. Member National Assembly Hamza Shahbaz, Member Provincial Assembly and Chairperson Saaf Pani Company Dr. Ayesha Ghaus Pasha, Secretaries of Finance, Planning & Development, Information departments and concerned officers attended the meeting.



Pakistani volunteer wins hearts of people in Ebola hit Sierra Leone village

Pakistani volunteer wins hearts of people in Ebola hit Sierra Leone village


April 04, 2015 – Updated 150 PKT
From Web Edition

Pakistani volunteer wins hearts of people in Ebola hit Sierra Leone village

UNITED NATIONS: A Pakistani social worker volunteering for the United Nations campaign to stop the spread of the deadly Ebola virus has become something of a folk hero for his devoted services to the people of a disease afflicted village of Sierra Leone a west African country according to reports received at UN Headquarters in New York.

Khalid Javed Choudhry works mainly in Kunta Dumba, a small village near the border with neighbouring Guinea which is battling Ebola and where a number of families have lost their loved ones.
According to reports on the day that Khalid and a team from the UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) visited two families were quarantined. They had come to inspect two latrines that had just been constructed for the quarantined families to avoid further spreading of the virus to other villagers and domestic animals.

One of Khalid’s tasks as a Field Crisis Manager in the district is to supervise the construction of such quick impact projects that help local communities fight Ebola.

The projects include toilets for quarantined homes fuel for an electricity generator that helps pump treated water into a reservoir for use in the township and at the Ebola Treatment Centres funds for a group of Ebola survivors to help raise awareness of the virus and for a local radio station to produce programmes in local languages.

To the villagers Khalid’s visits reassure of the UN’s concern for their plight. They in-turn acknowledge his efforts by chanting Mr. Khalid, Mr. Khalid whenever they set eyes on him. He smilingly waves back to the people with whom he has developed an uncommon affinity.

“Khalid is a good man we love him” says Mohamed Kamara a project officer with the non governmental organization United for the Protection of Human Rights which is UNMEER’s implementing partner in the district. “He is a catalyst. He pushes us to do our jobs. He has adapted himself to the culture of our people. He feels our pain and we like his style.”
Khalid Javed Choudhry left his wife a son and a daughter in Pakistan to volunteer for an Ebola fight in the far flung areas of Sierra Leone. “I was involved in efforts to eradicate polio in Pakistan and I understand how difficult behaviour change can be. So when I heard about Ebola I knew behaviour change was going to be key and I wanted to come and help.” he said.

Arriving Sierra Leone in mid January Khalid had to live with little or no electricity without easy access to medicines and having to eat strange foods. But he soon adjusted and now feels at home. He notes: “I was mentally prepared for this situation. I did not expect to come to a place where social services are working smoothly.”
Despite the discomforts Khalid has connected emotionally with the villagers. “I look at them particularly the families that have lost loved ones due to Ebola and I say to myself at least I have not lost anyone. Whenever I think about their situation I get the energy to work even harder.”
When the villagers are happy Khalid says his mood is upbeat. He said helping to end Ebola is his mission and also his passion.
UNMEER Field Operations Manager Martin Leach said that Khalid has just the right personal approach when working with UNMEER’s partners in fighting Ebola he is considerate patient yet determined.

While Khalid is looking forward to re-joining his family in Pakistan he conveys a sense of urgency even desperation whenever he talks about the Ebola fight. “I am hoping these people can return to a normal life very soon.”
“By the end of March Kambia was still an Ebola hotspot. Behaviour change is the key to breaking the transmission chain and from what I can see the situation is slowly improving.” Khalid said.

Today’s Newspaper


Punjab to introduce solar-powered water ATMs


LAHORE: Punjab province is set to launch an innovation for water-short Pakistan: Solar-powered ATMs that dispense clean water when a smart card is scanned.

The two-foot-square prototype machine looks and functions like an ATM, but dispenses water instead of cash. Users are issued a card they can use to claim a daily share of water.

The project, a collaboration between the Punjab Saaf Pani (Clean Water) Company and the Innovations for Poverty Alleviation Lab (IPAL), a research centre in Lahore, aims to install a water ATM on each of a series of water filtration plants being established in rural and urban fringe areas of Punjab province.

The machine is designed to help the government cut water waste and ensure people have access to clean water, said Jawad Abbasi, a programme manager at IPAL.

“The innovative machines will help the government maintain a record of the exact quantity of clean drinking water being dispensed in a day in a specific locality, besides ensuring its quality,” he said.

The quality and quantity of water being dispensed will be tracked in real time online, through a central server, he said.

How it works

The devices play an audio message upon authentication of a scanned card, after which they dispense water for the user. Green and red buttons enable the user to start and stop the flow of water.

A flow control meter manages how much water is dispensed, and sensors measure the amount of water still available.

In its first phase, the project will cover three districts of Punjab including Bahawalpur, Rajanpur and Faisalabad, all areas with particularly serious water contamination issues, experts said.

Each beneficiary family will be entitled to collect a maximum of 30 liters of clean drinking water daily from the filtration plants with their unique identity card, Abbasi said.

“We are planning to install the machines at 20 filtration plants in the first phase that will benefit some 17,500 families,” he said.

He said that his organisation was seeking $23,500 in aid from the UK Department of International Development to put the prototype into production and install more of the dispensing machines at existing water filtration plants in Punjab.

Similar card-based water dispensing systems are already in use in neighbouring India.

Push to improve water access

According to Punjab Saaf Pani Company, only 13 percent people in rural areas have access to tap water, compared to 43 percent of people in urban areas of Punjab. The province, with 98 million people, is the country’s most populous.

The government of Punjab aims to provide clean drinking water to over 35 million people by the middle of 2017 and some 20 billion rupees (almost $200 million) is being allocated for the effort in the upcoming budget, said Muhammad Farasat Iqbal, chief executive officer of Punjab Saaf Pani Company.

“It’s one of the top priorities of the provincial government, to ensure provision of clean drinking water in each locality, as access to clean water is a fundamental human right,” he said.

Iqbal said the clean water would be provided free of cost but beneficiary communities would pool money each month to pay for maintenance of the ATMs and filtration plants.

According to Pakistan’s national drinking water policy, 35 percent of Pakistan’s population doesn’t have access to safe drinking water. The policy estimates that diseases related to water, sanitation and hygiene issues cost Pakistan’s economy about 112 billion rupees ($1.1 billion) each year in health costs and lost earnings.

Nazir Ahmed Wattoo, an environmental expert with the Punjab Anjuman Samaji Behbood (Organisation for Social Welfare) said few water conservation systems are in place in Pakistan, resulting in waste both in daily use and in agriculture.

By regulating and measuring the water used daily in a specific area, he said, the government can better manage the scarce resource.

The real test, he said, will be whether the water dispensing centres are maintained and effectively monitored.

He said the centres also need to be supported by a concerted national effort to build new water reservoirs. Pakistan’s water storage capacity is currently just 30 days, a quarter of what neighboring India says is needed.

Measure your Health without going to Hospital

Measure your Health without going to Hospital

Health is a major contributor of development and unfortunately it is connected to our income, for a nation where more than half of us are below the poverty line and majority of the rest are sitting on it. health monitoring becomes all the more important
Monitoring health will need some easy measurement which can be done by creating awareness of Body Mass Index (BMI) . It can be done by determining weight in Kgms divided by square of Height in Meters.

Maintaining good figure and good BMi will ascertain our health position, under weight, over weight or right.

another parameter for measurement , I suggest specially for our part of the globe is adding belt size, which is on the increase in unprivileged class also. measuring and mainlining belt size will be important for our health status. See our security forces/ government employees are silently shifting to shirts above the belt. Business community has a free hand in Shalwar/ Kameez.

Strongly suggest BMI and belt size be made a part of service record / maintained in personal files every year,

End Water Poverty steering committee: selecting representatives from South Asia

End Water Poverty steering committee: selecting representatives from South Asia

Submission of nominations closing : 18.00 hours, 25th May 2015
Submit to :
 End Water Poverty steering committee: selecting representatives from South Asia
End Water Poverty (EWP) is a global civil society coalition campaigning to hold governments to account on their obligation to progressively realise the human right to water and sanitation so that water and sanitation is available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and of good quality for everyone.
We are currently holding a selection process to identify 1 civil society representative from the South Asia region to sit on its international steering committee for a period of two years from May 2015.
The steering committee is the key advisory body for the End Water Poverty coalition, leading on the strategic direction of the campaign, agreeing policy and providing oversight to the EWP secretariat. EWP is a key player in the international civil society sector, and requires informed, active and dynamic representatives from all regions.
This is an exciting opportunity to play a part in a growing coalition of over 280 organisations campaigning in over 60 countries. As well as bringing your experience to the international level, you will gain experience of international level advocacy and networking.
Steering Committee structure
The EWP Steering Committee is made up of:
  • 2 representatives from Asia – 1 of these positions is currently vacant
  • 2 representatives from Latin America
  • 2 representatives from Africa
  • 3 representatives from donor countries and INGOs
  • 1 representative  from ‘other’ constituencies (such as Trade Unions, gender, faith)
  • 1 representative from our host organisation
  • 2 co chairs
Please see Annex A for further details of the Steering Committee, including; terms of reference, role, composition and selection process.
Required duties
Duties would include;
  • attending a 60 minute teleconference every two months
  • attending a yearly face to face meeting and a yearly video conference call
  • contributing to email discussions in between teleconferences
  • undertaking consultation with others when necessary between meetings
  • Being a key link between the international campaign and regional level bodies
 Skills required
Skills and experiences sought include:
  • successful advocacy experience
  • knowledge of the water and sanitation sector
  • links to relevant civil society networks
 Application process
To apply for this position, please fill in the form overleaf and send it back to
Please include a short statement (max. 500 words) outlining why, according to your skills, experience and position, you should be considered for the position, and why you would like to do it.
Once nominations have been received, s selection committee within FANSA will choose the representatives based on the skills needed for the position, as well as ensuring a regional and gender balance.
The deadline for nominations is the 18.00 Hours India Time, 25th May 2015 . Decisions will be announced by 5th June 2015.
For more information on End Water Poverty please see or contact Ramisetty Murali;  
NOTE: Kindly requested to all FANSA Programme Coordinators to disseminate this call to your national chapter members. 
Prakash Amatya
Convenor, NGO Coalition

600/15 Siddhartha Sadak,Dallu Awas
Swoyambhu,Kathmandu,NepalMobile: +977-1-9851097910 | VIBER
WE CHAT: PRAKASHAMATYA | Skype: prakash.amatya
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Preview attachment Annexure-1 Steering Committee constitution 2014.doc

Annexure-1 Steering Committee constitution 2014.doc

Annexure-2 EWP steering committee nomination South Asia.doc

Preview attachment Annexure-3 SA members 2015.xlsx

 Contact  for more information


Karachi water crisis worsens

Karachi water crisis worsens


The water supply situation in the provincial capital of Sindh is going to the dogs with no measures being taken by the authorities to contain the problem, reports a private TV channel.

Sources said that nexus of the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board and water tanker mafia has fuelled the water crisis in the city. Citizens have questioned the source of water supply to hydrants despite the prevailing crisis in the city.

Reports suggest that almost 70 percent of Karachi is without water with Malir, Korangi, OrangiTown, SITE, Metroville, North Karachi, Landhi, Shireen Jinnah Colony, BaldiaTown among the worst hit areas where even drinking water is not available.

Moreover, the continuous load shedding at pumping stations including Dhabeji is making the situation worse.

A report authored by late Parveen Rahman of the Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) back in 2008 and published in a local newspaper suggested that Karachi’s water tanker mafia, which generates an estimated Rs 49.6 billion annually, siphons off over 272mgd — or 41 per cent — of the water from the city’s bulk distribution system every day and then sells the commodity at exorbitant rates to residents and industries suffering from the water scarcity that is largely caused by the activities of the water tanker mafia itself.


The WASH Performance Index Report

  • source
  • The WASH Performance Index Report


  • Highlights
    • The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Performance Index is a comparison of country performance in realizing universal WASH. The WASH Performance Index assesses performance in the following components: water access, water equity, sanitation access, and sanitation equity.
    • The top five performing countries in the 2015 WASH Performance Index rankings are El Salvador, Niger, Egypt, Maldives, and Pakistan. The bottom five performers are the Dominican Republic, Gambia, Ghana, Samoa, and Timor-Leste.
    • Progress toward equity in sanitation is significantly associated with governance indicators including control of corruption, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, and rule of law. These results suggest the enabling environment for WASH contributes to progress in sanitation equity.
    • Water access performance among countries in Sub-Saharan Africa varies widely, despite their having the lowest water coverage in the world.
    • Among the world’s most populated countries, Pakistan, China, and Nigeria were top performers (ranked 5, 11, and 18 respectively). Russia, the Philippines and India were bottom performers (ranked 72, 83, and 92 respectively).
    • Despite the assumption that countries with higher GDP will perform better in improving access to water and sanitation, GDP was not significantly correlated with performance.
    • Among most top performing countries, neither water nor sanitation dominated the overall Index value, suggesting improvements in water or sanitation do not come at the expense of the other.
  • Home >
  • Intro >
  • Methods >
  • Water Access >
  • Water Equity >
  • Sanitation Access >
  • Sanitation Equity >
  • The Index >
  • Implications >
  • Annex >


  • We consulted WASH stakeholders and experts to design the WASH Performance Index.
  • The Index assesses country performance in water access, water equity, sanitation access, and sanitation equity.
  • Country data compiled by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) were used to calculate rates of change for each component.
  • Frontier analysis was used to identify best-in-class performance at different levels of water and sanitation coverage.
  • The most recent rate of change from each country was compared to best-in-class performance among countries at similar levels of water and sanitation coverage to generate a benchmarked value, enabling fair comparison.
  • The index value is the sum of the component benchmarked values.
  • Country trends were calculated for each of the components.
  • We examined associations between component values and country characteristics (e.g. GDP per capita, percent urban, world region as defined by the World Bank) and governance indicators (e.g. government effectiveness, control of corruption, regulatory quality, rule of law).

We consulted experts and stakeholders in designing the Index and incorporated feedback from a series of events: a think tank at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) in March 2014, a workshop at the September 2014 Stockholm International Water Week, and a workshop at the October 2014 UNC Water and Health Conference. At the UNC think tank, nine participants representing WASH stakeholders from multilateral organizations, donors, NGOs and academia recommended that the Index should be simple for clarity of communication and focus on country-level water and sanitation coverage. In preliminary versions of the Index, we considered including input data, such as data on governance from sources such as the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) report [7]. Think tank participants recommended separating these two types of data to enable comparison. In Stockholm over 30 WASH stakeholders and experts suggested the Index use already-available data and be able designed so as to be able to incorporate future data. At the UNC Water and Health Conference workshop, eight participants suggested the Index align with the indicators and data sources for the Sustainable Development Goals therefore making it ‘future proof’.Index components
The WASH Performance Index is the sum of country performance values for the following components: water access, water equity, sanitation access, and sanitation equity. The access components use the rate of change of access to an improved water source or sanitation facility, where access is the proportion of the population using improved water or sanitation (i.e. coverage). The equity components use the rate of change of the gap in coverage between rural and urban settings. Countries have a decreasing gap between rural and urban coverage (i.e. increasing equity) or an increasing gap between rural and urban coverage (i.e. decreasing equity) (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Examples of increasing and decreasing equity in access to water and sanitation between rural and urban areas

Frontier Analysis
A country approaching 100% coverage can only improve water and sanitation slowly, while countries at intermediate levels of coverage can often increase coverage more rapidly. This is also seen with other technologies, such as the uptake of mobile phones [8]. When levels of coverage are compared with rates of change, we tend to see rates increasing at low levels of coverage, plateau at intermediate levels of coverage, and slow as they approach 100% coverage. This is illustrated in Figure 2, in which the best-performing countries represent a performance frontier at which best-in-class performance is demonstrated and against which countries at the same level of coverage can be compared.

Frontier analysis, a technique used to study efficiency or best-in-class performance, enables identification of top performing countries. It has been used to measure performance of “decision making units” such as schools, factories, and hospitals and has been applied to measure human rights realization [9, 10].

Figure 2. Country performance on WASH using frontier analysis to describe the performance frontier at which best-in-class performance is achieved

Data sources
Data on improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities were obtained from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The JMP, the agency charged with international monitoring of drinking water and sanitation, categorizes a drinking-water source as improved if “by nature of its construction or through active intervention, [it] is protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with faecal matter”. An “improved” sanitation facility is, “one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact” [11].

National level data on the proportion of the population with access to improved water and sanitation (coverage points) were obtained from JMP Country Files. The JMP coverage points are compiled from nationally representative sources including Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), World Health Surveys (WHS), and national censuses [12].

Calculation of rates of change
We calculated the line of best fit between each series of three consecutive coverage points for each country (i.e., a three-point moving average). Countries can have more than one rate if they have four or more coverage points – each corresponding to a different time in their development. When there were multiple coverage points from the same year for a country, data for that year were averaged to generate one coverage point. The country rate of change is the slope of the best-fit line. A three-point moving average was selected rather than the slope of all available coverage points to capture change in rate over time. The 2015 Index is based on the most recent three coverage points for each country. This process was performed for each of the components. Data from 212 countries and territories were reviewed from the latest JMP update in 2014 [13]. Country data were excluded if countries achieved 100% coverage or if there were insufficient coverage points (less than three). We were able to calculate rates for 138 countries for water access, 129 for water equity, 133 for sanitation access, and 126 for sanitation equity. An Index value was calculated for each country if values from all four components were available. We were able to calculate Index values for 117 countries.

Calculating the performance frontier and identifying best-in-class performance
We conducted frontier analysis using the FEAR software package in R version i386 3.1.1 [14]. We followed frontier analysis best practice and used the software to identify outliers which were removed when defining the performance frontier [15, 16]. The software used the rates of change from all countries to identify performance frontier points, each representing best-in-class performance.

We used Microsoft Excel® to generate a straight line between the performance frontier points to define best-in-class performance values at any level of coverage. Since countries can no longer improve once they reach 100% coverage or achieve equity, the line defining the performance frontier ended at 100% coverage and 0% rate of change.

Rates of change from years that coincided with or followed within three years of a country’s involvement in an armed conflict (with more than 1000 deaths) were not used in defining the performance frontier. To identify conflict states, we consulted the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset [17]. Conflict states were not assigned a rank for these years, but for reference, they were compared against best-in-class performance. Conflict states are denoted at the bottom of the ranking lists and in the annex (overall index and for each component) with asterisks.

Comparing best-in-class performance between countries
To generate a value for each component that enables country comparison we used the following equation:

Country component value = (country rate) ÷ (best in class performance rate)

This compares country rates to best-in-class performance and generates a value between -1 and 1, enabling fair comparison between countries. Values between 0 and 1 represent progress while values between 0 and -1 represent regression. Values of 1 lie along the performance frontier, reflecting best-in-class performance. Outliers were manually assigned a value of either 1 or -1. We repeated this process for each country and each of the components.

The most recent country component values were used in calculating the 2015 WASH Performance Index.

Trends in performance
While we report the most recent component values for each country, these values change over time. Trends in these values show whether country performance is improving or deteriorating. To examine trends in performance, we calculated the slope of all available values from each country for each component. For all countries where slopes could be calculated, we created three equal groups: either improving, unchanged, or deteriorating. Countries with only one value for any given component were not categorized (listed as “N/A” in tables). Countries with values that tracked along the performance frontier for all available values (i.e. maintaining best-in-class performance over time) were not categorized. Trends were further grouped based on their most recent component value in the 2015 Index. Countries with positive values in the 2015 index (with values between 0 and 1) were grouped and countries with negative values (with values between -1 and 0) were grouped. Trends should be interpreted alongside component values because, for example, a country might have a positive trend but negative component value or vice versa.

Assembling the Index
We followed index best practice and considered each component of the WaSH Performance Index as an equal-weighted value since we have no justification to weight any component more than another [18]. We use the latest country values for each component for the overall Index. For each country, the WaSH Performance Index is the sum of best-in-class performance for water access, water equity, sanitation access, and sanitation equity. Countries without all four components were not ranked.

Correlation between components and country indicators
We assessed correlations between component values and country indicators to explore potential underlying drivers of performance (Table 1). Country characteristics and governance indicators, representing the enabling environment, from publicly available data sets were used [19, 20]. The enabling environment is “a favorable culture of internal coordination and communication; policy and institutional behavior that guides behavior of water and sanitation service providers with clear and enforceable service standards, and resources to provide effective water and sanitation services” [21]

We used the latest available data for each indicator. To assess correlation between components and country indicators, we conducted univariable linear regression analyses for each of the components.

Table 1. Country characteristic and governance indicators

Source: World Development Indicators (2013) [19]
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in 2013 USD) GDP per capita reflects the amount of resources available for investment (in 2013 United States Dollars).
Gross National Income (GNI) per capita GNI is defined as “the sum of value added by all producers who are residents in a nation, plus any product taxes (minus subsidies) not included in output, plus income received from abroad such as employee compensation and property income.”
Under-five mortality rate Under-5 mortality rate is defined as “the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five.”
Primary education Primary education is defined as the number of primary education years completed by the population.
Urban population (% of total) “Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects.”
World region World region as classified by the World Bank. Regions are Africa, East Asia and Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and South Asia.
World Bank income classification Classification defined by GNI per capita in 2013. Classifications are: Low-income (less than $1,045), middle-income ($1,045 to 12,746), and high-income ($12,746 or more). Lower-middle-income and upper-middle income economies are separated at a GNI per capita of $4,125.
Source: Worldwide Governance Indicators (2014) [20]
Control of corruption Control of corruption “captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests.”
Voice and accountability Voice and accountability “captures perceptions of the extent to which a country’s citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.”
Political stability and absence of violence Political stability and absence of violence “measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and/or politically motivated violence, including terrorism.”
Governance effectiveness Government Effectiveness (GE) reflects government commitment and effectiveness in implementing programs.
Regulatory quality Regulatory quality “captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.”
Rule of law Rule of law “captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.”

Future development of the Index
Data for other proposed SDG targets and indicators such as hygiene, improvements in service levels, water safety, and WaSH in non-household settings are not yet available. Such data will likely be collected and become available within five years [12, 22]. A minimum of three different years of data for these new aspects must be collected so that rates of change can be calculated for the WaSH Performance Index. Data for an indicator can only be included when they are available for a sufficient number of countries. Our initial choice of indicators was influenced by data availability in order to maximize the number of countries we were able to assess. We will also assess whether other indicators of equity, such as the relative levels of access among wealth quintiles, might be added to the Index.

We will update the index and rankings in response to new insights and as new data become available (e.g. from JMP). According to the 2014 JMP report, 106 data sets from 63 countries were added, indicating potential for meaningful updates in the WaSH Performance Index rankings [12]


Water shortage worsens in Karachi

Water shortage worsens in Karachi

Source:  The News Published in Current Affairs on Wednesday, May 06, 2015


KARACHI: An additional 175 million gallon water shortage is being experienced in the city as K-Electric (KE) continues load shedding at water pumping stations.

The spokesman for the Water Board told Geo News four hours of load shedding was being conducted at five pumping stations of the city. The spokesman added that the shortage would continue for at least the next 72 hours.

According to the MD Water Board, KE should not conduct load shedding at pumping stations as the city is already facing a 560 million gallon shortage on a daily basis.

Commissioner Karachi Shoaib Ahmed Siddqui has taken notice of the situation and contacted the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of KE. A spokesman for the Commissioner House said KE had been directed to immediately stop load shedding at pumping stations.

Sindh Information Minister Sharjeel Memon said KE should change its attitude otherwise the government would be forced to take action.


Water Hygenie and Sanitation Issues Of Pakistan