Climate change is here, Let’s learn to live with it !

Fossil fuels, Chloro Flouro Carbons and Ozone layer are the background terminologies that cover climate change. due to a damage to ozone layer the global temperature is undergoing a gradual rise thus enhancing the glacier melt speed, causing a rise in sea water level, and islands going under water partially or wholly.Technically speaking climate change has increased possibility extreme events in the climate like rain, drought, snow fall, high temperature, low temperature no rains and floods. extended spells of uncommon cold or heat which was not predictable.

Pakistan is mostly having heavy rains and floods, except some desert parts of Sindh. Now this heavy rains and prolonged cold is likely to have adverse effect on our crop yields unless we take a look at our cropping pattern and times with an intelligent choice of breeds.

Human health has its own issues and chest / bronchial infections are on the increase.

animals also need special care during the changed environmental conditions.

Briefly if we can make intelligent adjustments in our way of life, cropping pattern and animal health Climate change can be a blessing.

 

Trying to replace water supply pipes will be counter productive ! Punjab Pakistan

The rumor is on that government of the Punjab is spending PKR 2 billion to replace the leaking pipes of water supply. This is being done to check mixing of polluted water from leakage of damaged adjoining sewerage water. since the supply is intermittent (Not 24/7) and whenever it stops the negative pressure develops in water pipes and hence suck dirty surrounding water. This effect is further intensified by suction motors installed in homes to pull some extra water, which causes suction of dirty surrounding water out of any holes even a pinhole mixing with clean water and polluting it.

The provider claims the water is safe at the plant and gets mixed up on route to consumer point. which is not very  right in the first place. again the long routes of water supply pipes in te city are laid close to sever pipes due to narrow streets . The replacement will repeat the same mistake of poor design, poor quality fittings and bad workman ship.

Let us just try to repair the damaged pipes with improved pipes, fittings and better workmanship. wish this is possible.

The solution is implementing installation of quality filtration plants , handing them over to local community , sell water at a cost spend this money on maintenance and operation and make it a sustainable clean water supply.

 

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene (WASH) and International Women day.

West is worried about women condition in the underdeveloped world not understanding the pivotal female role evolved in our society of limited resources. In fact women in under developed word is much different than imagined by developed societies.

Our society has some how clearly defined in house and out side roles for women and males. the opportunities of jobs/ earnings are limited and preferably males are responsible for doing these jobs. hoewevr in rural areas this distribution does not hold strong and women do work in the fields also with the male folk. He is not going to his office riding his car/ bike or bus any way .

the focal female role in our society is by no means less important than the male and compared to western women.

For the sake of this discussion let us have a look at the female role with respect to water sanitation and hygiene. unfortunately here she is more on the receiving end.

Believed to be a water manager at home , her duty starts from the collection of water on her head from the street water point to a distant water source, preserve it , manage its use refill the stock. During this exercise she risks her health and dignity at times. Additional problem caused by her absence from home is the unattended children who are at the growing and learning stage. The male bread winner is out cooking, driving or doing some other odd job for supporting his family. These days due to escalating higher costs of life families from rural area are migrating to nearby cities and women folk are also doing job at house hold level.

these families are living in makeshift living arrangements thus xposing them to more hazards of security from weather conditions . the municipal services are non existent , water again stays her domain with the added problem of looking for some safe place for defecation away from the settlement after the dark. this exposes them and the family to disease risk of holding up these natural needs till the sunst and exposing them to harassment in the dark out places. they do go out in groups for security and having some relaxed chit chat in the evening.

The women has the duty of tending to diseased family members , which is very common due to poor water quality, food and sanitation conditions.

Girls are mostly school dropouts after earl schooling if they are lucky to join one, due to non availability of privacy toilets, thus leaving the majority future emothers illiterate and furtehr dragging the nation to dark.

women/ girls do suffer more due to taboo attached to their specific needs, where they use all sorts of odd accessible s, best being rags of used cloth which has to be used repeatedly after secretly washing and drying at a hidden corner, Sun drying so important for this practice is not feasible for privacy reasons. This causes several diseases in females, unfortunately their treatment has an issue of privacy and poverty.

as discussed women here is mostly at a greater disadvantage due to inadequate access to water sanitation and hygiene facility and this puts our future in a bleaker area for a longtime to come

—Continued and to be reviewed. comments welcome

 

A worm free Pakistan, use what we eat ?

Posted on March 6, 2012 by admin

Project title: “Worm Free Pakistan”

By      Dr M Khurram Rashid

Problem statement:

Helminths are parasitic worms. They are the most common infectious agents of humans in developing countries and produce a global burden of disease that exceeds better-known conditions, including malaria and tuberculosis (Bethoney, 2008). More than a third of the world’s population is infected with worms (Helminths). There are many different types, but the most common are soil-transmitted Helminths (roundworm, whipworm and hookworm) and schistosomiasis which can negatively affect children’s health, nutrition and education (Global Atlas of Helminth Infections).

In 2001, World Health Assembly urged all Member States endemic for soil-transmittthiasis (STH) to attain “a minimum target of regular administration of chemotherapy to at least 75% and up to 100% of all school-age children at risk of morbidity by 2010” (WHO, 2008).

Pakistan has been declared one of the endemic countries. According to WHO estimates in 2010, of a total of 10,648,681 preschool-aged children and 23,735,460 school-aged children, only 92,720 have been treated using Albendazole/Mebendazole, amounting to a total of 0.39% of the total children at risk (WHO, 2012).

Periodic deworming helps avoid the worst effects of infection, leading an increasing list of countries to develop and implement national school deworming and mass drug administration programmes.

The benefits of school-based deworming are immediate and enduring. It has been proven to reduce school absenteeism by 25%, and also leads to higher income and literacy as these children grow to adults. Children regularly dewormed are shown to earn over 20% more and work 12% more hours as adults, while those who remain persistently infected are 13% less likely to be literate (The Evidence For School-Based Deworming).

Goal of the project:

The overall goal of the project is to improve the quality of life of the Pakistani citizens. Although various approaches are possible, this project aims at the most cost effective and practical approach to bring about alleviation in the miseries of the poor people in Pakistan.

Objectives:

The objective of the project is to deworm the maximum possible population in the country- one district at a time. This will be done through mass administration of chemotherapy recommended for the treatment and prevention of Helminths.

Target group:

Helminths affect the areas already downtrodden and with poor sanitation conditions. The targeted population, therefore, are the people of the poor rural and underdeveloped areas of Pakistan. This includes the children, men and women.

Proposed Intervention:

“Worm Free Pakistan” intends to intervene at school level through mass drug administration. The drugs used will be Albendazole/Mebendazole, as a single dose. Addressing the problem with a holistic approach, we believe that treating school attending kids alone will not solve the problem. The Helminths will stay in the surroundings and will most likely be able to infiltrate again owing to infected siblings and family members: the programme therefore, intends to treat all the family members of the school going children.

Project results:

The population of the target area will be tested through faecal tests for Helminths in order to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of Helminths in the area. The tests will be repeated on a random sample of treated individuals after the execution of the project has been completed. A decline in the number of helminth infections and the extent of decline will reveal the effectiveness of the project.

Project implementation:

The project will be multi phased:

  1. Estimates: initial tests will be conducted on a very brief sample of school going children to assess the gravity of the problem and thereby helping in choosing areas on the basis of need of intervention.
  2. Awareness and consent: this phase involves interactions with the school administrations and mass awareness campaigns through media and pamphlets about the problem and how are we going to address the issue. This will create a general acceptability of the idea amongst the masses and will also ensure their adherence to the drug regime. Consent of the parents of the school children will be taken before the project is actually executed
  3. Mass drug administration: Schools will be provided packs with single dosage deworming tablets for students and their families. A leaflet with the information will be included.
  4. Assessment: one month post administration of chemotherapy, random testing will be conducted to assess the efficacy of the project.
  5. Follow up: the same cycle will be repeated almost one year after the initial dosage to ensure the sustenance of results achieved and to help parents take responsibility for future repetition of the preventive chemotherapy.

Timeframe:

The project will initially be run in one district Sargodha as a pilot project. The drug administration will take place exactly one month after the launch of the project, once the estimation and awareness phase have been completed. The drug administration phase will take one month. One month later, the results will be assessed. The first administration can therefore be completed in 3 months. The follow up treatment will be a quick one month project exactly one year after the completion of the initial administration.

Resource plan:

The project will utilize the existing infrastructure of school staff with the consent of the education department. The project will take technical inputs from a public health expert. Separate teams will be allocated areas and their respective schools. Other than the top managers, the project will benefit from the services of the locals in order to enhance acceptability of the project and also to avoid expenses on boarding and lodging.

Chemotherapy used, Albendazole/Mebendazole will be the major financial commitment for the project. Printing of information leaflets for distribution through schools will also require funds.

The project, without being too expensive, will be a resourceful effort, making the best of the available resources and some aid.

 

Bibliography

Bethoney, J. M. (2008). Helminth Infection: The great neglected tropical diseases. Journal f Clinical Investigation, 1311.

GLOBAL ATLAS OF HELMINTH INFECTIONS. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2012, from http://www.thiswormyworld.org/: http://www.thiswormyworld.org/

The Evidence For School-Based Deworming. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2012, from http://www.dewormtheworld.org/?q=node/105: http://www.dewormtheworld.org

WHO. (2008). Soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Geneva: World Health Organization.

 

 

On line course on water and sanitation, hygiene WASH.

New Online Course on Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (MOOC) 
by muench - 23.01.2014    [click here to reply online]   [click here to reply by e-mail]

I saw an announcement for this upcoming online course and I thought it might be interesting for some, as we have discussed MOOCs on the forum before *:

http://www.gwp.org/en/gwp-in-action/News-and-Activities/New-Online-Course-on-Water-and-Sanitation-Policy-in-Developing-Countries/

++++++++
This spring the University of Manchester will offer a new Massive Online Open-Access Course (MOOC) on water and sanitation policy in developing countries. The course is free and open to everyone. The Global Water Partnership has endorsed this MOOC.
The course will be taught by Prof. Dale Whittington, a member of the GWP Technical Committee and a professor at the Manchester Business School (UK) and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (USA), and Dr. Duncan Thomas, Manchester Business School.

This course will have 2 modules. Each module has 6 sessions. In the first module students will examine current conditions and trends in water and sanitation services in low and middle-income countries, and the underlying political, economic, and technical reasons why almost a billion people still lack access to improved water supplies, and about 2 billion do not have improved sanitation services. The course will address the water supply and sanitation problems of megacities, peri-urban slums, and rural communities.

The second module will focus on what can be done to solve global water and sanitation problems. Students will examine the main strategies that national governments and donors have tried to improve water and sanitation conditions, and the lessons that can be learned from these experiences.

Students in this course will develop an in-depth understanding of the current water and sanitation situation in low and middle-income countries, and the challenges that professionals in this field must tackle. Students will listen to lectures and read some of the influential, thought-provoking papers in the field. They will discuss both the lectures and the readings online with other interested individuals from all around the world. Videos will be used to supplement the lectures and readings. In addition, students who successfully complete the courses will receive a Coursera Statement of Accomplishment. We expect a lively online discussion with water and sanitation professionals around the world, and hope you will join us!
+++++++++

If anyone takes part in it, please give us some feedback what it’s like (I have never taken part in a MOOC myself).

Note that we have also started a new subcategory on the forum on these issues of policy and governance and institutional aspects:
http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/142-upscaling-sanitation-governance-institutional-aspects-sanitation-policies
We have called it:
Upscaling, sanitation governance, institutional aspects, sanitation policies
Topics in the area of governance, institutions, water sector reform processes, water and sanitation policies and regulations – aiming at upscaling can be discussed here.

Regards,
Elisabeth

* See here previous discussion about MOOCs:
http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/54-wg-1-cap-development/4638-concept-of-massive-open-online-courses-for-susana-and-its-members-a-users

Road map for improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in the Punjab, Rs 10 Billion

Punjab Water – Way Forward

10 Billion For water sanitation and hygiene, Wash 2014.

Punjab Pakistan on way to improving the quality of life, based on sustainable development of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene.

Hats off to the Government of Punjab for commitment and allocation of PKR 10 Billion for the development of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH).

Water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has a cross cutting effect on several aspects of our life like Health, education, Female education, poverty, food security (watch helminths in pot bellies of the children in kachiabadies).

Developing WASH helps development by sparing quality time of mother with family saved from long distance water collection and saves mother/ sister from hassle of going out / waiting till sunset for open defecation which also exposes them to harassment.

 

A. Some quick fix tips to improve drinking water in Pakistan and South Asia.

1. Order cleaning of all water tanks and bold print next cleaning date on the tank. Time three months.

2. Order every water supply system, providing water for more than 1000 consumers, to get its water tested for suitability to drink, in accordance to PSQCA standards. Share results with the consumers via print, TV and FM radio. Compliance time three months.

3. Instruct all organizations employing more than 50 people, check its water being discharged for EC, pH and total solids. And report to PAK EPA on monthly basis. Along with approximate quantity discharged. Compliance time three months.

4. Check and report valve chambers at the street corners for leakage and cleanliness. Water supply Incharge to inspect and report. Compliance time three months.

 

5. Hospital in charge to check and report about hospital waste disposal, EPA . EPA to cross check. Three months compliance time.

 

Once a month CM may like to walk in at the water supply system check and suspend the responsible officers and go to his office for routine daily jobs.

 

B. Role of consumers in improving WASH situation.

Lot of responsibility for improving this situation lies on the shoulders of the federal and the provincial governments, yet the consumers themselves can contribute a lot be taking responsibility of the under mentioned steps to improve their quality of life.

Consumer’s role depends on consciously

1. Ensuring that each adult drinks 2.-2.5 L of safe drinking water (about 10-12 Glass), children adjust accordingly. Quantity of water needs adjustment according to temperature and profession.  Players need more water

2. Saving water, not wasting. Controlling car and floor washing with clean water and irrigating of lawns.

3. Visiting and checking with the water provider, actions being taken to ensure provision of safe drinking water.

4. Check with the provider, date of cleaning of overhead and/or underground water storage tanks.

5. Consumer to insist on seeing the latest water test report with the provider

6. Ensure that domestic water storage tanks are regularly cleaned

7. In case of more than one family member suffering from water related disease, get his water Tested from a laboratory and start collecting water for drinking from a safe source.

8. Intermittent supply of water causes back suction of dirty water from leaking surroundings. Report leaking pipes and valve chambers immediately and follow it   up to repair.

9. Ensure that all family members wash their hands with soap after the use of bath room.

10. Ensure operational toilets in schools, hospitals and place of WUZOO in mosques, have soap for washing hands.

 

C. One point agenda for 2014

A brief policy level intervention, for water sanitation and hygiene (Wash) for year 2014- Pakistan, Punjab. Implemented strictly with dedication and strong follow up, these simple logical steps can immediately show improved results, improve focus of the implementers and more importantly provide a bench marking base for future improvements in wash development and hence quality of life in the Punjab. This experiment places a greater responsibility of success on our shoulders, because it has to show a path of success to rest of Pakistan and other south Asian states.

It is suggested that every manager/ in charge of a water supply system serving more than one thousand consumers be made a party to this system.

 

1. He/ she will be required to get water sample being supplied for drinking analyzed from a lab of reputation every month.

2 The analysis will be in accordance to Pakistan standards and quality control authority PSQCA, for drinking water.

 

 

3. The sample will be collected by the lab themselves.

4. The results will be shared with public every month via press and radio.

5. In case of water supplied being unfit for consumption according to Pakistan standards of quality control authority (PSQCA). Action be taken against the said manager/ in charge, minimum a fine of PKR 1 / person/ day . Followed by his/ her suspension and termination.

Public using that source will be informed about the hazard.

 

D. Last but Not the Least.(Water Treatment Plants).

Continuity of installing of water filtration plants is the most important and tricky and difficult part of this exercise. This system approved and budgeted in mid-2000, has met disaster end due to our common national handicaps of project being in the hands of those who hardly knew its basics, mismanagement, corruption etc. The seriousness of the then government about the project can be judged by the fact that a special ministry of special initiatives was created for implementation, and dissolved when it led the project to a collapse.

The Important points not to be missed are

  1. These water treatment plants if implemented properly are the only possible means of supplying safe drinking water in Pakistan.
  2. Notice we call them treatment plants not filtration plants.
  3. These plants have to be designed in accordance with the quality of raw water in the area of supply.
  4. Mostly it will be three module based on sand , Granulated Active Carbon (GAC) filter and UV lamp .
  5. The plants have to be handed over to local government for care and maintenance. Maintenance of the plants is already the responsibility of the supplier for five years. The part payments of supplier be held till then and the time the plant does not work or supply unfit water will be double added to the guarantee period.
  6. Plants in Centre Punjab (RY Khan, Multan and Muzaffergarh) for Arsenic area will be designed as a follow up, as per the contents of Arsenic in Raw water and other impurities.
  7.  Similarly separate design for contents like Nitrate, Fluoride and TDS will be done.
  8. Please remember one design does not fit all.
  9. The quality of water will be tested on 15 days basis and the results made available to consumers, posted on the plant.

10.Plants will be running sufficient time for the supply to the area.

11. This time the water will be fit for drinking all along and not FREE. It will be charged at PKR 5/ gallon and ensured that the container is clean.

12.The money thus collected will go towards its maintenance and operation.

13.The consumers will be able to see the light of operational UV lamp, if he so desires.

14.The implementer will ensure and check the wavelength and intensity of UV light of the lamps, and ensure replacement when gone weak.

 

10 Billion for water sanitation and hygiene, Wash 2014. consumers role

Consciously 1. Ensuring that each adult drinks 2.-2.5 L of water (about 10-12 Glass) and children adjust accordingly. Quantity of water needs adjustment according to temperature and profession .Players need more water
2.Saving water, not wasting.
3. Visiting and checking with the water provider the actions being taken to ensure providing safe water.
4. Check with the provider, date of cleaning of overhead and/or underground water storage tanks.
5. Consumer to insist on seeing the latest water test report with the provider
6. Ensure that domestic water storage tanks are regularly cleaned
7. In case of more than one family member suffering from water related disease, get This water Tested and start collecting water from a safe source.
8. Intermittent supply of water causes back suction of dirty water from leaking surroundings. Report leaking pipes and valve chambers.
9. Ensure that all family members wash their hands with soap after the use of bath room.
10. Ensure toilets in schools, hospitals and place of WUZOO in mosques have soap for washing hands

Rs 10 Billion for water sanitation and hygiene, Wash 2014. what to do ? 1.

b. Some quick fix tips to improve drinking water in Pakistan and South Asia.

1. Order cleaning of all water tanks and bold print next cleaning date on the tank. Time three months.

2. Order every water supply system , providing water for more than 1000 consumers, to get it water tested for suitability to drink, in accordance to PSQCA standards. Share results with the consumers via print, tv and FM radio. Compliance time three months.

3. Instruct all organisations employing more than 50 people , check its water being discharged for EC, pH and total solids. and report to PAK EPA on monthly basis. along with approximate quantity discharged. Compliance time three months.

4. Check and report valve chambers at the street corners for leakage and cleanliness. In charge to inspect and report. Compliance time three months.

5. Hospital in charge to check and report about hospital waste disposal, EPA . EPA to cross check. Three months compliance time.

Once a month CM may like to walk in check, suspend responsible officers and go to his office.

Water Hygenie and Sanitation Issues Of Pakistan